Control of safety and health quality of the hottes

2022-08-08
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Asparagus, also known as asparagus, is a perennial perennial plant, native to the European coast, with a cultivation history of 2000 years. In the 1970s, China began to plant and process asparagus products in large quantities, with a national planting area of nearly 50000 hectares, mainly distributed in Fujian, Shanxi, Shandong, Shaanxi, Henan and other provinces, and a small amount of planting and processing in Xinjiang, Ningxia, Liaoning, Hebei and other provinces (regions). Canned asparagus is favored by people because of its unique flavor and high nutritional value. It has been enduring in the international market for decades, and has a very stable and broad market. The production of canned asparagus is a labor-intensive industry. In the international competition, China has a unique competitive advantage. In recent years, China has gradually become the main producer of canned asparagus. Canned asparagus is also a key product in China's export canned vegetable industry, with an annual export volume of nearly 100000 tons, mainly sold to Europe and the United States, accounting for 1/2-2/3 of the international trade in canned asparagus

1. Common quality problems in Asparagus cans

(1) rancidity caused by the action of acidophilus: acidophilus is a kind of anaerobic or facultative anaerobic thermophilic spore bacteria from the soil. The spores are not easy to be killed under conventional sterilization conditions. When encountering suitable environmental conditions, their spores multiply rapidly in geometric progression, resulting in the rancidity and deterioration of cans. However, the rancidity caused by the action of acid bacteria only produces acid, but does not produce gas. The appearance and vacuum degree of the can are normal. The conventional appearance inspection can not judge whether it is rancidity, but only open the can for inspection. The raw materials of canned asparagus are mainly from the tender asparagus stems buried in the soil, which are easy to be polluted by acid bacteria. In the production process, if the hygienic conditions of processing cannot be effectively controlled, it may cause a large number of spores of acid bacteria, and eventually lead to the deterioration of canned asparagus and loss of edible value

(2) corruption and deterioration caused by insufficient sterilization or insufficient effective chlorine concentration in cooling water: sterilization is the last safety key in the process of canned food production. The sterilization of low acid cans is to kill Clostridium botulinum as the object bacteria and formulate sterilization conditions in order to achieve commercial sterility, rather than killing all microorganisms. If the sterilization conditions cannot meet the requirements of commercial sterility, or the temperature in the sterilization pot is uneven and there are cold spots, it will lead to insufficient sterilization. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms will multiply in large numbers and lead to corruption and deterioration. In addition, a certain concentration of effective chlorine should be added to the cooling water after sterilization, so that the mass fraction of residual chlorine in the cooling discharge water is not less than 5x10 (-5). If the effective chlorine concentration in the cooling water is insufficient to achieve a smooth transition without impact when switching between modes, the sterilized cans will cause secondary pollution when cooling, and eventually lead to the corruption and deterioration of asparagus cans

(3) poor sealing or false sealing leads to air leakage of cans: when sealing cans, if the tray, indenter, roller and other parts of the sealing machine are adjusted 3. Anyang industrial chain extension and deep processing suggestions are not well adjusted, the sealing will be not tight or false sealing will be caused. Sometimes, this false sealing phenomenon cannot be recognized by the naked eye. If the tank structure is not destroyed, it cannot be judged whether its sealing meets the requirements. This situation does not play a sealing role, resulting in insufficient vacuum or air leakage of the can, causing microbial reproduction and corruption

(4) black spots caused by iron exposure on the inner wall of the can: because the tin cans, can covers and glass bottle covers used in the production of asparagus cans are not paid attention to in the process of manufacturing, transportation, storage and use, the paint is scratched or peeled off under the action of external forces, forming iron exposure points. The metal iron reacts with the asparagus can soup to produce ferrous ions, and then forms a complex with the rutin dissolved from asparagus, Black iron rutin complex is formed by oxidation, forming black spots on the exposed iron on the inner wall of the tank or the inner wall of the tank cover, which can pollute the contents in serious cases

(5) browning and soft rotten tissue: canned asparagus contains a small amount of sugar. If the sterilization time is too long or the temperature is too high during the sterilization process, and it is not cooled to the specified temperature within the specified time after sterilization, Maillard reaction will occur and browning will occur, resulting in soft rotten tissue, poor flavor and reduced its edible value

2. The necessity and feasibility of establishing HACCP system for asparagus can manufacturing enterprises

for decades, China's manufacturing enterprises have always guaranteed the quality of 12 domestic invention patents by means of final product sampling inspection. This inspection mode has many risks. It is a post inspection of "mending the situation after the sheep is lost". If unqualified products are found, only the whole batch of cans can be judged as unqualified, The occurrence of unqualified products cannot be prevented, nor can the causes of unqualified products be traced to prevent the recurrence of unqualified products. The same problems may occur many times. The food safety control system based on HACCP is a management system based on GMP (good practice) and SSOP (hygienic standard operating procedures). It is a preventive system that determines and controls key control points on the premise of hazard analysis. It can prevent the occurrence of hazards rather than remedy afterwards. In addition, HACCP system management has gradually become a more common means of food safety control in the world. As an export can production enterprise, it must meet the requirements of the international market. Therefore, it is very necessary to establish this system in Asparagus canning enterprises

the health registration system implemented by China's export can manufacturing enterprises for many years has enabled enterprises to establish a relatively perfect health quality system, and has generally established GMP and SSOP, laying a good foundation for enterprises to systematically implement HACCP system management. Therefore, it is also very feasible for enterprises exporting asparagus cans to establish this system

3. Establishment, implementation and inspection supervision of HACCP system

in the past, our routine practice was to randomly select samples for inspection of the final products in proportion. In fact, if the defects in the quality of cans have been formed, sometimes they may not be found by sampling inspection alone; On the contrary, if the cans are found to be defective in the inspection process, it is judged that the whole batch of cans are defective, and its quality cannot be completely judged correctly. According to the hygienic requirements for export can production enterprises and the hygienic specifications for the registration of export can production enterprises, the inspection was carried out from beginning to end, from large to small. The result was that a lot of problems were found and the enterprises were ordered to implement rectification. Although there were inspections and supervision in the supervision process, it also had certain effects. However, problems often recur when re regulating

asparagus canning enterprises should establish and implement HACCP system to change the control concept focusing on the inspection of final products into the preventive control of hazards in the food production process, so as to ensure the safety of canned food. The focus of HACCP plan is to analyze the possibility, implement the control of production process and prevent the occurrence of unqualified products. Compared with the traditional final product inspection in the past, it is more conducive to the transformation of the inspection and quarantine work function from emphasizing inspection over management to process control, and improves the effectiveness of inspection and quarantine work

4. Problems to be solved urgently

(1) effective HACCP system management should be established and implemented: enterprises lack specialized personnel for management work, lack the necessary understanding of the theoretical basis of HACCP system, and it is difficult to establish a HACCP management system that not only meets the requirements of official verification, but also suits the actual situation of enterprises. ① Enterprise personnel lack systematic understanding of the HACCP system and will not prepare HACCP system documents. Finding a model and copying it is not suitable for the actual situation of the enterprise. The actual work and system documents are "two skins", and the system simply cannot operate normally; ② In the society, some certification and consulting institutions with the purpose of making profits have uneven levels of certification and consulting personnel. Some even do not understand food production and HACCP theory at all, and only make ambiguous "general documents". In fact, the system has not operated at all, let alone effectively control food safety hazards; ③ The document writers of some enterprises are determined to write their own documents. Although they are in line with the actual situation of the enterprise, there are some deviations in their understanding of HACCP theory. The HACCP system documents written are completely the documentation of the existing work, and they can write as they originally did, which did not achieve the purpose of effectively controlling food safety

(2) we should establish and improve the pesticide residue monitoring system as soon as possible: with the development of agriculture and the progress of pesticide research, there are more and more varieties of pesticides, and the scope of application continues to expand. While the output of agricultural products increases, it also brings the pollution of pesticides to agricultural products and food. The deterioration of the global environment has led to the increasing number of foodborne diseases. In the international trade of agricultural products and food, more and more varieties and items are required to detect pesticide residues, the requirements for detection limits are getting lower and lower, and the requirements for inspection and quarantine technology are also getting higher and higher. Therefore, we must strengthen the safety control of asparagus cans, implement base management, and reduce the main food borne hazards in the whole process from farmland to table. Only in this way can we achieve the purpose of protecting consumer health and ensuring food import and export trade

(3) the inspection and quarantine institutions should adapt to the transformation of functions and improve the quality of personnel: first, the personnel of the inspection and quarantine institutions should work hard, constantly learn new knowledge, improve their own quality, strengthen the inspection and quarantine, supervision and management of canned asparagus food for export, and the continuous training of official certification personnel, update the knowledge structure, and improve the theoretical level of personnel. Secondly, we should carry out regular exchange and study, explore the working ideas and methods under the new situation, and explore effective supervision, management and inspection modes for export can production enterprises, so as to grasp the key points and effectively supervise, and truly protect the export of China's agricultural products to foreign trade

source: (agricultural products processing, Jing Hong, etc., food department of Shanxi entry exit inspection and Quarantine Bureau)

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